When you first open photoshop it can be very confusing. I'll go over the different areas separately, but here's a general overview:
The drop down menus have lots of stuff in them, and you'll gradually learn where to find things. The tool bar on the left shows what tool you are currently using. In the picture above you can see that the arrow is highlighted. Depending on what tool you are using different options will be shown in the options bar. The last area are the palettes. There are many palettes that you can choose to display here. You may have different ones than me, and that's okay. Next I'll show you how to change your palettes.